Tense in English Grammar || Tense Notes

Tense in English Grammar


Def:- Tense is a grammatical term in which we study  the form of the verb and it shows the relation with time.  By :- Nesfield father of Modern

Introduction OF Tense:- The word tense was originated from a latin word “Tempus” which means “Time” It has 72 structures & It is very important for spoken & written English .

Q. How many types of tense?

Ans:- There are three types of  tense.

  • Present tense (4×6=24)
  • Past tense (4×6=24)
  • Future tense (4×6=24)

Present tense

  1. Present indefinite Tense
  2. Present continuous Tense
  3. Present perfect Tense
  4. Present perfect continuous tense

2. Past Tense

  1. Past indefinite tense
  2. Past continuous tense
  3. Past perfect tense
  4. Past perfect continuous tense

3. Future Tense

  1. Future indefinite tense
  2. Future continuous
  3. Future perfect tense
  4. Future perfect continuous

PRESENT Present indefinite:- or Simple present Tense




Id:- v1+ता है/ती है/ ते है।
Def:- It shows the daily routine or  It shows the natural phenomena.

Str :-  Sub+v1/v5+obj

V1 = He / she / it / name
V5 = I / we / you / they

Note:- Affirmative sentence में  कोई helping verb नहीं लगता है।

Ex:- वह यहाँ आता है।
He comes here.
He is come here .×
He here comes. ×

Ex:- मैं आपको जानता हूँ।
I know you.

Neg :- S+ do/does+not+vi+obj

Does- He /she / it / name
Do – I /we / you / they

Ex:- वह झूठ नही बाेलता है।
He does not tell a lie.

Intro..:- Do/Does+s+v1+obj

Ex:- क्या वह चाय पिता है?
Does he take tea?

Str :- Do/does+S+ not+v1+0
Ex:- क्या वह झूठ नही बाेलता है?
Does he not tell a lia ?

Wh.Q . Affirmative:-
Str:- Wh+Q+do/does+S++v1+0
Ex:-वह कयु चिल्लाता है?
Why does he cry?

Wh.Q.Negative :-
Str:- Wh+Q+do/does+S+not+v1+0
Ex:- तुम क्यु नही समझते हो?
Why do you not understand?
Ex:- वह कैसे नही पढता है?
How does he not read?

Simple present
Id:- N/adj है/ या हाेता है।
Note:- इसमें verb नही होता है।
Str:- Sub+is/are/am+N/adj
Are:-you, we/they
Am:- I

Ex:- आकाश नीला हाेता है।
The sky is blue.
वह मेरा भाई है।
He is my brother.

Present imperfect/continuous/ progressive.

Deff:- It shows the temporary action of the present.Id:-v+रहा है /रही है/रहे है।
Str:- S+is/am/are+v4+obj
Ex:- 1.वह एक पत्र लिख रहा है।
He is writing a letter. 2 . He is not writing a letter.
3. Is he writing a letter?
4. Is he not writing a letter
5. Why is he writing a letter?
6. Why is he not writing a letter?

3 . Present Perfect Or Present-non-progressive

Def:- It shows the recent action.
Id:- V+या है /यी है/ ये है।
2. V+चुका है/ चुकी है/ चुके है।
3. V+आकार है।

Str:- S+has/have+v3+obj
Has:- He/ she/ it/ name
Have:- I /we/ you/ they etc
:- उसने अपकाे निमंत्रण दिया है।
He has invited you.
वह चाय पी चुका है।
He has taken tea .
उसने zero देखा है।
He has watched the zero.

4.Present perfect continuous Or Present perfect progressive

Def:- It shows the action started in the past & still going on in the present tense.

Id:- V+रहा है / रही है/ रहे है।त रहा है /त रही है/ त रहे है। with time

Str:- S+has/have+been+v4+0 +since /for

Since (से):-
Name of the month
Name of the day
Name of the year
Name of the time
Since of the since 2o’clock

For (से):-
Period of time
For 2 months
For four days
For 3 years
वह सुबह से पढ रहा है।
He has been reading since
वह दो महिनो से पटना में रह रहा है।
He has been living in Patna
for two months.




1.Past indefinite Or Simple past

Deff:– It shows the action of the past.
Id:- (1) V+या/ ये/ यी
(2) V+ता था/ती थी/ते थे।

  • Note:-इसके Affirmative में काेई  Helping verb नही अाता है।

Str:– sub+v2+obj

Example:- वह यहाँ आया।
He came here.
वह बाजार गया।
He went to markets.
मैं यह बात जानता था।
I know this matter.


Str:- sub+did+not+v1+obj

Ex:-उसने यह काम नही किया।
He did not do this work.
वह नही आया।
He did not come.
Intro:- Did he come?
Intro.N- Did he not come?
Wh.Q:-why did he come?
Wh.Q.Ng- Why did he not come?
Simple past tense
Id:- N/adj था
N/adj हाेता था
Str:- S+was/were+noun/adj
Was -He/ she/ it/ name
Were- They/ we/ you/etc
वह बहुत माेटा था।
He was very fat/so fat.
तुम पागल थे।
You were mad.

2.Past continuous /imperfect/ Progressive tense

Deff:– It shows the temporary action of the past.
Id:– V+रहा था/रही थी/ रहे थे।
Str:- S+was/were+v4+obj


वह एक हाेटेल बना रहा था
He was constructing a hotel.
Ng:- He was not constructing a hotel.
Intro:– Was he constructing a hotel?
Intro.ng :- Was he not constructing a hotel?
Wh.Q:-Why was he constructi -ng a hotel?
Wh.Q.ng:- Why was he not Constructing a hotel?

3.Past perfect tense or (Past-non-progressive)

Id:– V+ या था/यी थी/ये थे
चुका था/चुकी थी/ चुके थे
Str:– Sub+had+v3+obj

वह सा चुका था।
He had slept.
वह चला गया था।
He had gone.

Past perfect continuous Tense 

Deff:– It shows the action Started in the past continuous & finished in the past.
Id:– V+रहा था/ रही थी/रहे थे
With time
Str:-S+had+been+v4+obj Since/ for

वह सुबह से पढ रहा था।
He had been reading since morning.
तुम बचपन से यह काम कर रहे थे।
You had been doing this work
since childhood.
Ng:- You had been not doing
this work since childhood.

Intro:- Had you been doing
this work since childhood?

Intro.ng:- Had you been not
doing this work since

Wh.Q:- Why you had been doi
-ng this work since childhood
Wh.Q.ng:- Why you had been
not doing this work since
Childhood ?


Future indefinite:-

Deff:-It shows the action of future in a sentence.

Id:- V+गा/ गे/ गी
Str:– S+shall/will+v1+obj

Shall:- 1st person (I,we)
Will:- I,we,you they, he,she
Ex:- मैं आउगा।
I shall come.
वह जाएगा।
He will go.
Ng:-He will not go.
Intro:- Will he go?
Intro. Ng:-Will he not go?
Wh.Q:-Why will he go?
Wh.Q.ng:-Why will he not go?

Future continuous tense

Deff:– It shows the action
Will be continuous in the future.
Id:- V+ता रहेगा/ती रहेगी/ते रहेगें।
V+रहा हाेगा/रही हाेगा/रहे हाेगा
Str:- S+shall/will+be+V4+obj


वह एक पत्र लिखता रहेगा।
He will be writing a letter.
तुम खाना बनाते रहाेगे।
You will be cooking food.

Ng:- you will not be cooking

Intro:- Will you be cooking

Intro. Ng:- Will you not be cooking food?

Wh.Q :- Why will you be cooking food?

Wh.Q.ng:-Why will you not be
Cooking food?


Deff:- It shows completion of
an action in the future.
Id:- V+या हाेगा/यी हाेगा/ये हाेगे।/
चुका हाेगां/चुकी हाेगीं/ चुके होगें।

Str:- S+shall/will+have+v3+0

वह बाजार गया हाेगां।
He will have gone to market.
तुम खाना खा चुके हाेगें।
You will have eaten food.
Neg:- you will not have eaten Food.
Intro:– Will you have eaten food?
Intro. Ng:-Will you not have eaten food?
Wh.Q:-Why will you have eaten food?

Wh.Q.ng:-Why will you not have eaten food?

Future perfect continuous

Deff:-It shows the action will be continue from a certain time in the future.

V+रहा हाेगा (with time)
V+रहेगा (with time )
V+ता हुआ रहेगा(with time)


S+shall/will+have+been+v4+ Obj+for/from

वह दाें बजे से पढ़ता रहेगा।
He will have been reading from 2 o’clock.
Neg:- He will have not been
reading from 2 o’ clock.

Intro:- Will he have been reading from 2 o’clock?

Intro. Ng:-Will he not have been reading from 2 o’clock?

Wh.Q:- Why will he have been
reading from 2 o’clock?

Wh.Q.ng:-Why will he not have been reading from 2 o’clock?


Learn Voice :-


Preset Tense 

Past Tense

Future Tense



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